Year: 1931

Composed by Herman Hupfeld


Sheet music in:


As Time Goes By • SRB Standards RB

As Time Goes By • AGJ Anth des Grilles de Jazz

As Time Goes By • FBB Fake Book of the Blues

As Time Goes By • GGB Great Gig Book

As Time Goes By • R1 Real Book 1

As Time Goes By • TB The Book


Harmonic Analysis: “this song is itself a lesson in jazz harmony”. 


Chorus A:  Key of Ebmaj7

It starts with an usual  IIm-V7- Vm6-V7-I6. After it, the author draws upon a IIm-bIIIº-IIIm progression with the diminished chord as a passing chord. So we arrive to the II degree chord but this last in an unsual tension, II7,  (a resource that Mozart used to give strong to the piece) and after it the author gets back to classic harmony with a usual IIm-V7–Imaj progression. This chorus ends with a IIm –V7 progression to facilitates the repetition of chorus A. The second time the chorus A ends in a I6-Vm-I7 to modulate to a new key in the chorus B.  


Chorus B: New key: AbMaj7

This chorus starts with Imaj7 and after it, the author uses an   unusual progression III7  VIm  bIIº- IIIm – I7 (III7 and I7 are hard chords). We arrive to a VI7 chord (a new hard chord) and after it to a II7 degree chord (Bb7).  Between two II7 chords the author put a diminished II degree (Bbdim).    As this II7 chords is also a V degree chord of key of chorus A (Ebmaj7) it facilitates the modulation to this key.



Chorus A2:

After an dominant chord (Bb7) the listener expects a major chord (Ebmaj) but this chord is hidden below a II-V progression and so we are newly in chorus A. In this occasion the chorus A is different and so, after II7 (F7), the author uses  (IIIm-VI7) (Gm7-C7) and after it a classical IIm-V7 to end in I6.  


Girl From Ipanema

Year 1962

Composed by: Tom Jobim //Vinicius de Moraes (lyric)

Sheet Music:  

Girl From Ipanema • UJFB (Ultimate Jazz FB)

Girl From Ipanema (Garota De Ipanema) • R1 (Real Book 1)

Girl From Ipanema (The) • TB (The Book)

Girl From Ipanema • CCB (Colorado Cookbook)

Girl From Ipanema, The • SRB (Standards RB)

Girl From lpanema • GGB (Great Gig Book)


Harmonic Analysis:  

Chorus A:  Fmaj7

Is a progression “I   II7  IIm  bII7” in which bII7 replaces  V, an interchange that takes from jazz music,  because it does not exist in classical harmony. When it seems that is ending Jobim put a new chord (bII7 degree) before repeating the chorus A. The second time close in a  I degree chord.

Chorus B:

In this chorus Jobim begins “with thrills” putting us 3 keys “one after another with little respite”. The first key is really present (Gbmaj7) but the others go “hidden” (Amaj7; Bbmaj7). In all of them use as impressive and unique application, put a IV7 chord like we were in a blues (but in the blues this step is logical because we come from a dominant chord (I7) whereas in this popular bossa we come from a maj7!!!).  

I (Gbmaj7)……IV7

VI (Amaj7)…..IV7

VI (Bbmaj7)…..IV7


The chorus B closes with two II V I progressions but with different profiles: 

IIm    V7b9    Im:  Coming from a IIm (instead of expected IImb5 in minor keys), one would expect,  after a V degree,  a maj chord in I position but Jobim puts us an Im​​ chord. He warn us using a tension b9 chord V degree but this b9, although more characteristic of minor keys,  can be seen in major keys too.

The second part of the last chord progressions is also II V7b9 I maj7,but in this occasion we begin with Gm  which was degree I in previous progression but degree grade II of the new key: Fmaj7. Newly Jobim uses a “b9 chord V degree”, a not usual chord in classical harmony. It sounds good “by chromathism” of  b9 of V degree with the fifth note of the first degree chord (I) of the scale (tonic).”

ESSE CARA (Caetano Veloso)


Sheet Music available at: Brazilian Jazz Real Book (page 104)


Chorus A works in Keys of  D  G  Bb  A  D


A special feature in this chorus is that it has 10 bars instead of the usual 8 bars; the last 2 bars occupied by chords of degree II and V respectively.


The first 3 bars show a “I VIIm IIIx VI” progression (the dominant chord represented as x, following the classic jazz music symbology (John Mehegan), with two absolutely great chords in the middle due to the use of  unexpected tensions,  especially in reference to the degree VII. If you look carefully the sheet music VIIm chord (C # m7),  this one acts as degree II on the following chord (IIIx) (F # 7),  making this movement very grateful to the ear. Then there is a step downadding an unusual modulating 9th tension over the second chord, using thus a pedal note (B natural).  


The next 2 bars contain a “II V I” progression in a new key (G) and the following 2 bars another one II V I progressions in key of Bb. To modulate  from one key to another the composer resorts to one IVm7 chord (Cm7), fulfilling the functions of degree II in the new key.


Then the composer resorts to half step up  and leadings us from a Bbmaj7 chord to a Bm chord and there performs two II V progressions in Key of A (the tonic Amj7 is hidden) and Key of D respectively, and we reserve the tonic (Dmaj or tensions that assume their role as that of 6/9) for the new chorus A. The A to D modulation is performed by exchanging the first V by the second II of the (E7 is transformed in Em7)


The chorus B works in Key of GF Em C Bb D


The first 8 bars are three   II V I progressions of different keys: G F and Em


II V I (Gmaj7).  The modulation is done transforming the degree I in a minor chord and using it as degree II of following key.


II V I (Fmaj7). In modulation the composer up a half step and changes maj7 to m7 (Fmaj7 to F # m7) which works as degree II in the following progression: IIm7 V7b9 Im (Em), drawing attention that usually in a minor key the degree II is not a minor chord  but m7b5 or dim but this small nuance obtains a differential color in this bossa. In the next modulation uses a Ebmaj7chord that resists harmonic analysis as is not the chromaticism.


II V I (Cmaj7). To modulate uses a IVx degree chord (F7)


V (F7) I (Bbmaj7)


II VI (D6 / 9) V 7 # 5, with this last chord end the song to return to the beginning to accompany the solos.